Copyright notice 

The copyright in the material on the website pages is owned by or licensed to Cambridge University Press & Assessment, or reproduced with permission from other third-party copyright owners. 

It may be downloaded and printed solely for personal reference, but not otherwise copied, distributed, adapted or altered in any way or transmitted to others (unless explicitly stated below (for examination and assessment materials) or otherwise, such as TDM or Creative Commons Licences/Open Access) without the written permission of Cambridge University Press & Assessment. m

Hypertext links to other web locations are for the convenience of users and do not constitute any endorsement or authorisation by Cambridge University Press & Assessment. 


Cambridge publications, examinations, assessment materials and support Materials 

We assert Cambridge’s ownership and/or control of the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the materials published by Cambridge, except where works are attributed to third parties. 

Any materials accessed via password-protected sites or services provided by Cambridge are not available for public access and shall only be accessible or downloadable for use by registered users. 


Copyright infringement 

Cambridge University Press & Assessment takes complaints about copyright infringement seriously. 


Reporting claims of infringement of Cambridge’s copyright 

If you would like to report an instance where you believe a third party has infringed our copyright, please contact our Anti-Piracy & Brand Protection team at with details of the alleged infringement. 

Please note that we cannot guarantee a response to your report. We review all reports received and take action where appropriate. 


Reporting claims of infringement of copyright within a Cambridge product 

If you would like to report an instance:


  • where your copyright has potentially been infringed on our website at and any other microsites, web pages and/or platforms maintained by us or on our behalf (collectively our “Site”), please contact with details of the alleged infringement. See also DMCA policy page; and 

  • where your copyright has potentially been infringed within a Cambridge product, please contact with details of the alleged infringement.